Archive

Posts Tagged ‘performance’

Install MySQL database on Ubuntu and add new user.

June 16th, 2013 No comments

Installing MySQL on Ubuntu requires only a few simple steps.

  1. sudo apt-get install mysql-server
  2. sudo netstat -tap | grep mysql
  3. sudo vi /etc/mysql/my.cnf
  4. sudo service mysql restart

To look for some simple performance and security suggestions:

  1. sudo apt-get install mysqltuner
  2. mysqltuner

Adding a new user is equally easy…

  1. mysql --user=root --password=mypassword mysql
  2. CREATE USER 'myusername'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY 'mypassword';
    GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'mydatabase'@'%' WITH GRANT OPTION;
    FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

NOTE: This allows access to the user from ALL hosts, it can be limited by replacing the '%' with a specific hostname (such as ‘localhost’ if desired) for security.

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Improve Apache Tomcat logging performance

April 6th, 2013 No comments

Logging is often an overlooked performance drain on systems requiring high throughput. Here’s a simple change to the default Tomcat logging configuration to implement. It works on all operating systems.

In the file:
$TOMCAT_HOME/conf/logging.properties

Change:
.handlers = 1catalina.org.apache.juli.FileHandler, java.util.logging.ConsoleHandler

to
.handlers = 1catalina.org.apache.juli.FileHandler

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JavaScript “use strict”

November 27th, 2012 No comments

ECMAScript 5 added Strict Mode to JavaScript. Many of you may have first seen mention of this if you’ve used JSLint. It helps to remember that JavaScript still behaves much like an interpreted vs. compiled language as each browser/parser makes assumptions to execute code faster in different manners.

There are four primary features/goals of strict mode:

  • Throws errors for some common coding issues, that are sometimes obscure but previously didn’t throw an error.
  • Prevents or throws errors for potentially “unsafe” actions (such as gaining access to the global object).
  • Disables functions that are confusing or poorly thought out
  • Potentially code in strict mode could run faster by eliminating mistakes that would make it difficult for JavaScript engines to perform optimizations

Initial support added in FireFox 4 and MSIE10:

WARNING: if you chose to do this at a ‘file’ level, be sure to never concatenate several files together that are not ALL strict.

JS File Example:
"use strict";
function testFunction(){
var testvar = 1;
return testvar;
}

// This causes a syntax error.
testvar = 2;

JS Function Example:
function testFunction(){
"use strict";
// This causes a syntax error.
testvar = 1;
return testvar;
}
testvar = 2;

REFERENCES:

Free website uptime monitoring

November 26th, 2012 No comments

Regardless if you host your own websites, or pay to have them hosted elsewhere, up-time, availability and network performance metrics are important to your visiting guests.

Here are two free services that I’ve found useful for monitoring, notification and reporting.

BTW, you can even use these to watch competitors or sites that you frequent.

Browser performance impact of charset/codepage assignment

November 17th, 2012 No comments

Most developers (myself included) are often unaware of the performance impact of the Content-Type / charset of a web page. Ideally you should set this as an HTTP Header vs. using META http-equiv. It’s often though that this only helps with the transport and display of data, however, the browser also makes use of it when parsing CSS & JS assets. Tags related to those provide an optional ‘charset‘ attribute should they ever need to vary from your content.

General guidance is to set this at the very top of the <head> before <title&gt; and within the first 1024 bytes, though there are reports that Firefox will look at the first 2048 bytes of the page for this META information.

Not doing so may cause the browser to do a codepage restart to re-parse assets that were interpreted in the potentially incorrect codepage.

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" />

REFERENCES:

Conditional Comments cause CSS to block

November 13th, 2012 No comments

Here’s an odd one…. I’ve found that if you use the common method of using Conditional Comments to separate MSIE specific CSS, you’ve likely added a performance problem without knowing it… that is, in addition to the network connection and time required for the different CSS files.

It turns out that the standard use of this approach blocks the other downloads until the main CSS is loaded.

The solution is both simple and painless to implement…. just add an empty condition above all of the other content. This works for all approaches, such as those where comments surround the <body> or various <link>, <style> or <script> tags.


<!DOCTYPE html>
<!--[if IE]><![endif]-->
<html lang="en">
...

REFERENCES:

Cloudflare CDN (Content Delivery Network)

October 24th, 2012 No comments

Best practices for web applications often call for the use of a CDN. Those of you that have worked with YSlow! are likely very accustomed to seeing warnings for this reason. I’ve found that CloudFlare is very easy to setup, and for basic services costs absolutely nothing. In addition to the obvious performance advantages of using a CDN to offload much of your network traffic, it also has the advantage of improved security.

CDN’s work by caching a copy of your static content at several locations around the world, making it closer and faster for your users.

Implementation takes only minutes as it requires that you:

  1. create a (free) account,
  2. retrieve your existing DNS values from your current provider,
  3. determine direct vs. CDN “cloud” routing for each subdomain,
  4. change your DNS records to point to the CloudFlare DNS servers

Some additional advantages I’ve seen since implementing:

  • Site remains available in limited capability to users during server outages or upgrades.
  • Simplified network configuration as all requests can be sent outside of the LAN for users local to the servers
  • IPv6 dual-stack support

REFERENCES:

Browser Performance/Capability Benchmark Testing

May 19th, 2012 No comments

In the past few years the browser wars have heated up again. Performance and capabilities of some browsers varies greatly. There are several standard tests that are publicly available to benchmark your systems. WebKit (Safari, Chrome & Chromium) and Mozilla (Firefox) based browsers, as well as Opera perform pretty well, MSIE is currently trailing in most cases.

Here are a few common ones…

HTTP ETag Header

December 14th, 2011 No comments

These are useful for some advanced caching behavior, but there are cases where you might find them unnecessary for static files (in particular). Most network analysis tools will call attention to this header value, and while it seems like a trivial amount of bandwidth to send from the server to the client, the real reason for the negative score is more likely related to the behaviors that it causes in the client.

It should be noted that the default value used for the ETag is based upon the ‘inode’ of the file, as such it’s IS problematic in clustered server environments. I’ve shown the correction for this below.

Adding the following to your Apache http.conf file is a start:


# Change ETag to remove the iNode (for multi-server environments)
FileETag MTime Size

#Remove ETag from all static content, this could be done globally without the FilesMatch, but we want better control.
<FilesMatch "\.(html|htm|js|css|gif|jpe?g|png|pdf|txt|zip|7z|gz|jar|war|tar|ear|java|pac)$">
<IfModule header_module>
Header unset ETag
</IfModule>
</FilesMatch>

REFERENCES:

Cheers.

HTTP Cookie Header

December 13th, 2011 No comments

Obviously “Cookies” have a lot of advantages in web applications to maintain “state”, unfortunately using standard server configurations leads to even static content serving them up un-necessarily wasting some (minimal) bandwidth.

Adding the following to the Apache httpd.conf file is a start:
#Remove Cookie from all static content (except HTML as javascript could use it)
<FilesMatch "\.(html|htm|js|css|gif|jpe?g|png|pdf|txt|zip|7z|gz|jar|war|tar|ear|java|pac)$">
<IfModule header_module>
Header unset Cookie
</IfModule>
</FilesMatch>

REFERENCES:

Cheers!